CXC CSEC exam guide: Human and Social Biology - Section B: Life Processes: Unit 1: Nutrition

CXC Human and Social Biology exam guide: Life processes Unit 1

CXC CSEC exam guide: Human and Social Biology



Specific Objectives

Students should be able to:

Explanatory notes


 Describe the major nutrients and their sources;

reducing and non-reducing sugars,
mention chemical and physical properties of carbohydrates,
lipids and proteins.


State the function of the main sources of vitamin A, B1, C, D and the minerals calcium and iron;


State the cause, symptoms and treatment of deficiency diseases;

Night blindness, anemia and rickets.


Classify vitamins as fat or water soluble;

(a) Fat soluble – A, D, E, K.

(b) Water soluble – B, C.

5. Perform tests to distinguish among food nutrients*

Starch, reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars, protein and fat.

(Link to Specific Objectives A8)

6. State the functions of water in the body;   Include water as a solvent, for hydrolysis and as a transport medium.

State the role of dietary fiber in the body;

8. Describe, the causes and effects of constipation and diarrhoea;

Including proper hygiene in the preparation

9. Explain what is meant by a balanced diet; Interpretation of data, include Caribbean food groups.
10. explain the effects of malnutrition on the human body;

Definition of malnutrition (over and under nutrition),
anorexia and bulimia,
protein and energy malnutrition (kwashiorkor, marasmus).

11. determine Body Mass Index (BMI);  

Weight (kg)/Height2(m)

12. use tables, charts and graphs to represent data on nutrition;
13. relate the types of teeth present in an infant and an adult human to their roles;
Diagrams required.
14. describe the importance of teeth in the process of digestion;
15. describe the structure and function of a typical tooth;
Internal and external structures; diagrams required.
16. relate the structures of the tooth to their functions;
Functions of enamel, dentine, pulp cavity, cement.
17. state the causes of tooth decay;
18. describe the process of tooth decay;
Include conversion of food into acids by bacteria.
19. outline guidelines for  the care of the teeth;
20. explain the properties, role and importance of enzymes involved in digestion;
include site of production.
21. investigate the effects of temperature and pH on the activity of the enzymes, amylase and catalase in the digestive process;*
Include construction and interpretation of graphs.
22. identify the various structures of the digestive system;
diagram of alimentary canal required.
23. relate the structures of the digestive system to their functions;
24. describe the process of digestion and absorption of food in the alimentary canal;

Include mechanical (mastication) and chemical digestion

(Link to Specific Objective A7)

25. describe what happens to the products of digestion after absorption; Fate of glucose, amino acid, fatty acids and glycerol; assimilation; role of liver.
(Link to Specific Objective B5.2)
26. describe the structure of a villus in relation to absorption;  Diagram required.
(Link to Specific Objective A7)
27. distinguish between egestion and excretion. (Link to Specific Objective B5.1)


lorpool (not verified) 14 February 2011 - 1:45pm

Is it possible to study 4 cxc subjects intensely for 3 months only and pass the exams with grade 1 or 2 General?

guest (not verified) 14 February 2011 - 3:10pm

In reply to by lorpool (not verified)

It depends on a lot of things. Like, if you have done any studying at all in the subject areas before (so that you are familiar with them), if you get any tutoring help during the 3 months, what textbooks, notes ect that you use, if you can pick things quickly or if you need more time to figure things out.

That is a hard question to answer when you don't give any information about yourself. Basically, it depends on you.

GUEST (not verified) 12 April 2011 - 8:48pm


guest (not verified) 1 May 2012 - 1:47pm

I've been doing classes since September & have been studying to sit this exam in May for the 1st time. Now that the exam is just mere days away i'm studying real hard because i really want this subject to persue my goals but i'm having a problem, as soon as i close the book & attempt to do a pass paper question i go blank & i'm not able to remember. Can anyone give me any pointers as to solving this issue. i really need some help. eagerly await a response.

PreciousLovesJesus (not verified) 2 May 2012 - 12:53am

In reply to by guest (not verified)

Hi. There is power in prayer, you should pray, mainly before every study session.
Maybe you are putting too much presure on the brain or maybe you're so anxious, that the information is stored on short capacities. My advice.....pray, pray, pray and do not pressure yourself, keep calm. Blessings. All the best to everyone in their exams. :)

guest (not verified) 6 May 2012 - 1:39am

In reply to by PreciousLovesJesus (not verified)

Thanks a lot, i really appreciate your comment. God Bless u.

cam (not verified) 6 May 2012 - 12:03pm

In reply to by guest (not verified)

Hi i read what you have said about HSB am having the same problem
am wondering if we can help each other. i wish i seeing this before now

kay (not verified) 15 March 2018 - 8:42pm

In reply to by guest (not verified)

I know i am late in responding to your question, but a few pointers , to study HSB, for those who haven't done it as yet: LIVE IT!!! everything that you do on a daily basis involves some biological activity, in one way or another. So for example, if you are studying about the respiratory system, take deep breaths from time to time and explain to yourself or a family member the process that is taking place. for example what contracts and what relaxes. If you are studying about the digestive system, when eating think about digestion of the meal that you are consuming, explain to yourself or to a family member the process and relate the structures to their functions. Do this for each topic and you are sure to get a grade 1.

daddyzdevil (not verified) 3 May 2012 - 12:09pm

I am taking exam presently and i wish all my colleague and myself good luck and may the almighty help us through this moment.

nicole muir (not verified) 22 March 2018 - 10:31am

am finding it hard

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